On July 22, Philip Esformes, Odette Barcha and Arnaldo Carmouze, were charged with conspiracy, obstruction, money laundering and healthcare fraud for their roles in connection with a $1 billion Medicare Fraud scheme.  Announcing the indictment, Assistant Attorney General Leslie R. Caldwell said it was “the largest single criminal healthcare fraud case ever brought against individuals” by DOJ.  Esformes, who operated over 30 skilled nursing homes and assisted living facilities, is alleged to have been at the top of a scheme that provided medically unnecessary services to Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries and received kickbacks from other health care providers who serviced these beneficiaries and billed for additional medically unnecessary services.  Esformes and his co-conspirators concealed these kickbacks as cash payments and charitable donations, among other things.  It is alleged that Esformes paid $15.4 million to resolve civil federal healthcare fraud claims in 2006, and only increased the sophistication of their scheme and concealment efforts after the civil settlements.  United States v. Esformes, et al., 16-20549 (S.D. Fl.). DOJ Press Release