On October 3, 2017, Roger Alford, Deputy Assistant Attorney General for International Affairs at the DOJ Antitrust Division, delivered an address at the International Conference on the Rule of Law and Anti-Corruption Challenges in São Paulo, Brazil. Mr. Alford noted that corruption hurts countries’ economies by impeding competition, which in turn “creates a high risk that prices will be distorted and products and services will be substandard” and “disadvantages honest businesses that do not pay bribes.” He said that the Antitrust Division is vigorously working to deter corruption and focused his remarks on two aspects of DOJ’s approach to reducing corruption: transparency and individual accountability. On transparency, Mr. Alford discussed the Division’s public manual and guidelines as well as the cartel leniency program, which provides leniency to the first company that voluntarily reports violations of criminal antitrust laws pursuant to a set of objective public criteria. On individual accountability, Mr. Alford discussed the 30-month sentence of Yuvalk Marshak for his role in a scheme to defraud the U.S. Department of Defense by falsifying bid documents. In his remarks, Mr. Alford also discussed DOJ’s efforts to combat anticompetitive behavior within the United States in the context of government procurement. As examples, he mentioned the 2016 fraud conviction of John Bennett for participation in a kickback scheme related to environmental cleanup subcontracting, and the 2017 bid rigging and fraud convictions of four defendants who colluded to rig an auction for public schoolbus transportation services.